Aviation Terms



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Title Description
A Alpha
A Check

Aircraft maintenance check performed approximately every 100-150 flight hours. This check is usually done overnight at an airport gate. The actual occurrence of this check varies by aircraft type, the cycle count (takeoff and landing is considered an aircraft "cycle"), or the number of hours flown since the last check. The occurrence can be delayed by the airline if certain predetermined conditions are met.

A-Weighted Sound Level

The A-weighted sound level/filter is used for most environmental reviews. Human ears are better equipped to hear mid and high frequencies than low frequencies, thus we find mid and high frequency noise to be more annoying. In general, people respond to sound most readily when the predominant frequency is in the range of normal conversation. A-weighted sound levels best match the human ears' sensitivity.

ABAA

Australian Business Aircraft Association

ABAG

Associacao Brasileira de Avicao Geral

Absolute Altitude

The height of the aircraft in terms of the distance above the ground directly below it. Also referred to feet/metres Above Ground Level (AGL).

ACANA

Air Charter Association of North America

ACC

In air traffic control, an Area Control Center (ACC), also known as a Center, is a facility responsible for controlling instrument flight rules aircraft en route in a particular volume of airspace (a Flight Information Region) at high altitudes between airport approaches and departures. In the United States, such a Center is referred to as an Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC).

ACMI

The most common type of jet lease. Stands for Aircraft, Crew, Maintenance, & Insurance. The lessor provides the aircraft, complete crew (including engineers) including their salaries and allowances, all maintenance for the aircraft, and insurance, which usually includes hull and third party liability. The lessor will charge for the block hour and depending on the aircraft type sets a minimum guaranteed block hours limit per month. If the airplane flies or not, the lessee must pay the amount for the minimum guaranteed block hours. The lessee has to provide all fuel, landing/handling/parking/storage fees, crew HOTAC including meals and transportation as well as visa fees, import duties where applicable as well as local taxes. Furthermore the lessee has to provide passenger/luggage and cargo insurance and in some cases need to cover the costs for War Risk.

Ad-hoc Charter

Rental of a jet aircraft or helicopter one trip at a time. These trips can be one-ways, round trips, or multi-leg flights. Find private jets available for ad-hoc charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Additional Lift

The use of aircraft by individuals or corporations who find themselves in any of the following situations: awaiting for delivery of a new aircraft, aircraft undergoing scheduled or unscheduled maintenance, requiring additional lift while evaluating purchase of another aircraft, ongoing low-risk evaluation of an initial aircraft acquisition. Find Additional Lift available for private charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Additionally Insured

Many jet charter operators carry a minimum of $50,000,000 insurance combined single limit, bodily injury to passengers property damage liability. At a flyer's request, operators will list them as additionally insured on their aviation insurance policy. As an additionally insured charter customer, the limit of liability will be shared with the charter operator and other parties on the charter operator’s insurance policy.

Aerodynamics

The combination of forces that allow airplanes to fly. The four forces of flight are thrust, drag, lift, and gravity.

Aerodyne

A heavier-than-air craft, deriving its lift from motion.

Aeromedical

The movement, and related operations, of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation.

Aeroplane

A power driven heavier than air aircraft that derives support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air on its surfaces that remain fixed under given conditions of flight. (See also airplane). Find aeroplanes available for charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Aerostat

A lighter-than-air craft, such as a balloon or airship. Its lift is caused by buoyancy relative to surrounding air.

Aft

Towards the rear part of the aircraft.

Aileron

Either of two movable flaps on the trailing edge of an airplane wing that is used to provide lateral control, as in rolling and banking movements. The ailerons are on the outside of the wings and operate oppositely (If one goes up, the other goes down). To bank to the left, a pilot must raise the left aileron and lower the right aileron.

Air Ambulance

An air ambulance is an aircraft used for emergency medical assistance in situations where either a traditional ambulance cannot reach the scene easily or quickly enough, or the patient needs to be transported over a distance or terrain that makes air transportation the most practical transport.

Air Charter

The act of renting or leasing aircraft for the purpose of transporting cargo or passengers. Find aircraft available for Air Charter on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Air Charter Agent

One who acts on behalf of either the end user of a chartered aircraft or on behalf of the charter operator regarding air charter.

Air Charter Operator

An entity responsible for the licensing, maintenance, safety and operations of the aircraft in their fleet. The air charter operator is not always the owner of the luxury jet, business jet or private jet that is available for charter; sometimes the operator will manage the aircraft for individual owners. Request a jet directly from an Air Charter Operator on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Air Show

A public display of aircraft in flight and on the ground, held at an airfield. Some popular Air Shows can be found in the Travel Event Calendar.

Air Taxi

A small commercial or private aircraft used for short flights between places not on a regular airline route. Typically scheduled flights.

Air Worthiness

An aircraft meets specific safety and performance requirements that allow it to be used in service.

Aircraft

A vehicle that can travel through the air.

Aircraft Maintenance Checks

Periodic checks that have to be done on all aircraft after a certain amount of time or usage. Airlines and airworthiness authorities casually refer to the detailed inspections as "checks", commonly one of the following: A check, B check, C check, or D check. A and B checks are lighter checks, while C and D are considered heavier checks.

Aircraft Noise

Noise pollution produced by any aircraft or its components, during various phases of a flight: on the ground while parked such as auxiliary power units, while taxiing, on run-up from propeller and jet exhaust, during take off, underneath and lateral to departure and arrival paths, over-flying while en route, or during landing. The FAA classifies aircraft into four stages for clarification: Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, and Stage 4 in order from loudest to the least noisiest. Noise levels for Stage definition of aircraft are measured at three points. These points are designed to measure noise levels for take-off, approach, and flyovers (sideline). Furthermore, classification is also based on the number of engines.

Aircraft Positioning

Moving an aircraft from one airport to another in order to accommodate the next flight. Occurs when an aircraft chosen for charter is not currently at the departure origin for the charter jet trip.

Airframe

The body of the aircraft without the engines, instruments, and internal fittings.

Airplane

A powered aircraft that derives its lift from the movement of air over fixed lifting surfaces. (See also aeroplane). Find airplanes available for charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Airport Advisory Area

The area within ten miles of an airport without a control tower or where the tower is not in operation, and on which a Flight Service Station is located.

Airport Slot

Rights allocated to an entity by an airport or government agency granting the slot owner the right to schedule a landing or departure during a specific time period. Also referred to as landing slot.

Airship

A lighter-than-air craft that can be steered and propelled through the air. (See also dirigible)

AirShow

A system that is availabile on many corporate aircraft and is adapted for the purpose of presenting text and or graphic displays on monitors available to the passengers and crew. It delivers information pertinent to the current trip such as position and time to destination, as well as news, weather, and financial data. Made by Rockwell Collins.

Airspeed

The speed of an aircraft relative to the air in which it is flying. There are different "kinds" of airspeed.

Airway

An airway is based on a centerline that extends from one navigation aid or intersection to another navigation aid (or through several navigation aids or intersections); used to establish a known route for en route procedures between terminal areas. Airways often are referred to as "highways in the sky".

Airway Distance

The actual (as opposed to straight line) distance flown by the aircraft between two points, after deviations required by air traffic control and navigation along republished routes.

Altitude

Altitude is the height of an object in relation to sea level or ground level. Aviation altitude is measured using either Mean Sea Level (MSL) or local ground level (Above Ground Level, or AGL) as the reference datum. There are several types of aviation altitude: indicated altitude, absolute altitude, true altitude, height altitude, pressure altitude, and density altitude.

Amenity

Something that conduces to comfort, convenience, or enjoyment.  Sample amenities of an executive jet or aircraft include: 110V Outlet, 230V Outlet, APU, Air Conditioning, Air Show, CD, DVD, VCR, TV Monitors, Headsets, Flight Phone, Satellite Phone, Fax Machine, Data Port, Dishware, Flatware, Glassware, Coffee Pot, Espresso Machine, Ice Bin, Full Galley, Kitchen Sink, Microwave, Electric Skillet, Convection Oven, Slot Oven, Toaster Oven, Warming Oven, Cloth Seats, Leather Seats, Linens, Bedroom, Lavatory, Lavatory with door, Medical Kit/AED, Medical Link, Ski Tube, Pets Allowed, Smoking Allowed.

AOC

Air Operator Certificate. A certificate authorizing an operator to carry out specified commercial air transport operations.

AOPA

Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association

Approach

The descent of an aircraft towards the place where it intends to land.

Approach Light System

ALS. Lighting system installed on the approach end of an airport runway and consisting of a series of lightbars, strobe lights, or a combination of the two that extends outward from the runway end.

Apron

Also known as an airport ramp. It is the part of the airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled or boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway.

APU

Auxiliary Power Unit. Its primary purpose is to provide power to start the main engines of the aircraft. An APU powers up the aircraft in two stages. First, the APU is started by an electric or hydraulic motor, with power supplied by a battery, accumulator, or external power source (ground power unit). After the APU accelerates to full speed, it can provide enough power to start the aircraft's main engines, either by turning an electrical generator or a hydraulic pump, or by providing compressed air to the air turbine of the starter motor.

APU Maintenance Overhaul

Includes all costs associated with the maintenance and overhaul of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) except routine, minor servicing and maintenance.

ARG/US

Aviation Research Group / United States. ARG/US provides specialized aviation services to companies that manufacture, finance, operate, maintain, and market commercial and business aircraft, as well as providing products and services to end-user consumers worldwide. ARG/US is a worldwide leader in performing on-site safety audits for corporate flight departments, charter operators, and commercial airlines.

ARTCC

Air Route Traffic Control Center. The United States term for an Area Control Center (ACC), also known as a Center. It is a facility responsible for controlling instrument flight rules aircraft en route in a particular volume of airspace (a Flight Information Region) at high altitudes between airport approaches and departures.

Aspect Ratio

The relationship between a wing's length (span) and front-to-rear measurement (chord). A high aspect ratio indicates long, narrow wings, whereas a low aspect ratio indicates short, stubby wings. If a particular wing's span is six times its average chord, its aspect ratio is 6:1. Wings with higher aspect ratios create more lift than those with lower.

ATC

Air Traffic Control system tasked with separating aircraft within controlled airspace. In the U.S., ATC is part of the FAA's charter.

Attitude

The orientation of an aircraft with respect to the horizon.

Autogyro

A rotor-craft with unpowered blades - it requires a separate engine to provide forward motion before lift is developed.

Auxiliary Fuel Tank A tank in which a reserve supply of fuel is carried.
Avgas

Avgas is a high-octane aviation fuel used to power many aircraft and racing cars. Avgas is used in aircraft that have piston or Wankel engines. Gas turbines can operate on avgas, but typically do not. Turbine and diesel engines are designed to use kerosene-based jet fuel.

Aviator

Pilot or crew member of an aircraft.

Avionics

Aviation electronics system of controlling and monitoring airplane systems. Makers of these systems include Garmin, Rockwell Collins and Honeywell.

B Bravo
B Check

Aircraft maintenance check performed approximately every 3 months. This check is also usually done overnight at an airport hangar. A similar occurrence schedule applies to the B check as to the A check. B checks may be incorporated into successive A checks, ie: A-1 through A-10 complete all the B check items.

BAAI

Business Aviation Association for India

Backlog

The accumulation of yet to be filled orders for private aircraft. The backlog numbers are a good component in estimating the future strength of the aviation industry.

Balanced Field Length

BFL. The distance obtained by determining the decision speed (V1) at which the take-off distance and the accelerate-stop distance are equal.

Balloon

An unpowered lighter-than-air craft.

Bank

To fly an airplane with lateral slope on a turn.

Base

The home airfield and where the aircraft is primarily located when on the ground.

Basic Operating Weight

The weight of a transport aircraft, including crew, ready for flight but without its payload and fuel.

BBGA

British Business and General Aviation Association

Bernoulli Effect

The aerodynamic principle that governs the lift of an aircraft's wing. Named after the Swiss Mathematician who discovered it.

BFL

Balanced Field Length. The distance obtained by determining the decision speed (V1) at which the take-off distance and the accelerate-stop distance are equal.

BFL MTOW

Balanced Field Length when the aircraft is at its maximum take-off weight.

Biplane

An aeroplane with two similar-sized wings (or pairs of wings), exactly or approximately in vertical alignment.

BizAv

Shorthand term for Business Aviation.

BizJet

Shorthand term for Business Jet. Find a BizJet available for a private charter flight on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Blimp

Non-rigid airship. Its shape is maintained by internal pressure.

Block Hours

A concept in which operators and brokers sell bundles of time on their private aircraft. Literally, it is the time from which the plane departs the gate to the time the plane arrives at a gate. The term derives from chocks (blocks) off to chocks on. Since chocks are only put in position at the gate, it's the gate to gate time.

Block Rates

The cost for a private jet charter client to purchase block hours. The per hour costs are usually less than those of a one time jet charter.

Borescope

An instrument, essentially a tube with a reflecting mirror and an eyepiece, used for inspecting the interior of shafts, well borings, tubing, engine clinders, etc., as to detect damage in inaccessible spaces.

Brake Release Weight

The weight of an aircraft at the start of a runway, just prior to brake release for take-off. This is the ramp weight minus any fuel used for taxiing.

Bulkhead

A dividing wall in an airplane that separates one section from another.

Bulkhead Seats

Seats placed immediately behind the dividing wall known as a bulkhead.

Business Jet

A private jet utilized by a company or executive for use on business related trips. Find Business Jets available for charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Business Jet Charter

A private jet chartered by a company or executive for use on a business related trip. Find aircraft available for Business Jet Charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

C Charlie
C Check

Aircraft maintenance check performed approximately every 12–18 months or a specific amount of actual Flight Hours(FH) as defined by the manufacturer. This maintenance check puts the aircraft out of service and requires plenty of space - usually at a hangar at a maintenance base. The schedule of occurrence has many factors and components as has been described, and thus varies by aircraft category and type.

CAASA

Business Aviation Division of Commercial Aviation Association of Southern Africa

Cabin

The enclosed section of an aircraft used for the crew, passenger seating, or cargo.

Cabin Height

Height of the jet cabin. Typically ranges from 4.2 feet to 7.3 feet.

Cabin Length

Length of the jet cabin. Typically ranges from 7.6 feet to 107.3 feet.

Cabin Width

Width of the jet cabin. Typically ranges from 4.5 feet to 12.2 feet.

Cabotage

The exclusive right of a country to operate air traffic within its territory. The transport of goods or passengers between two points in the same country.

Calibrated Air Speed

CAS. The speed shown by a conventional airspeed indicator after correction for instrument error and position error.

CALP

Civilian Aircraft Landing Permit

Camber

The curved upper surface of the wing.

Captain Seats

Oversized seats usually found in heavier private jets.

Carbon Credit

A permit that allows the holder to emit one ton of carbon dioxide. Credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced their green house gases below their emission quota. The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol. Its goal is to stop the increase of carbon dioxide emissions.

Carbon Footprint

The total set of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product. It is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted.

Carbon Offset

A financial instrument aimed at a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent and may represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases. One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases.

Cardinal Altitude

Thousand foot flight levels or altitudes.

Cargo Airliner

Aircraft used to transport large amounts of goods and products. Not certified for passenger loads.

Cargo Hull

Area of an aircraft in which cargo is loaded for transport.

Catering

A value added service offered by most jet operators and charter brokers. No request should be too big or small when the flyer requests certain meals, drinks, or extra services.

CBAA

Canadian Business Aircraft Association

Center of Gravity (CG)

The point at which the mass of the aircraft is balanced. This changes depending on the loading of the aircraft: fuel, passengers, luggage, etc. Different aircraft have CG limits specified by their manufacturer. If the CG of the aircraft in its current configuration is outside of the specified limits, the aircraft may be unsafe to fly. For example, if the CG is behind the aft (rear) CG limit, the aircraft will tend to stall.

Certificate of Airworthiness

A document issued by an aviation authority stating that an aircraft meets specific safety and performance requirements that allow it to be used in service.

Charter Broker

Entities, companies and individuals, that link prospective charter customers with charter operators. An air charter broker matches a consumer’s travel needs with available air charter provided by carriers licensed under Part 135 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs). Find listings of Jet Charter Brokers.

Charter on Demand

Rental of a jet aircraft or helicopter one trip at a time. These trips can be one-ways, round trips, or multi-leg flights. Find aircraft available for Charter on Demand flights on the Empty Legs or Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Charter Operator

A company or individual that holds aircraft charter certificates and provides charter services to retail and wholesale customers. Request a jet directly from a Charter Operator on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Chock

A metal or wooden block or wedge placed under the wheels of an aircraft to keep it from rolling.

Chock Off

When an aircraft no longer has the chocks wedged under the wheels.

Chock On

When an aircraft has the chocks placed under the wheels to prevent it from moving.

Chord

The dimension of a wing parallel to the direction of motion. (Compare with span and thickness.)

Civil Aviation

One of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial. Civil aviation includes two major categories: Scheduled Air Transport and General Aviation.

Class A Airspace

Controlled airspace in which all operations must be conducted under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) or Special Visual Flight Rules (SVFR) and are subject to ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC.

Class B Airspace

Contolled airspace in which operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or Visual Flight Rules (VFR). All aircraft are subject to ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC.

Class C Airspace

Controlled airspace in which operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. All flights are subject to ATC clearance. Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other and from flights operating under VFR. Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in respect of other VFR flights.

Class D Airspace

Controlled airpspace in which operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. All flights are subject to ATC clearance. Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other, and are given traffic information in respect of VFR flights. Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in respect of all other flights.

Class E Airspace

Controlled airspace in which operations may be conducted under IFR, SVFR, or VFR. Aircraft operating under IFR and SVFR are separated from each other, and are subject to ATC clearance. Flights under VFR are not subject to ATC clearance. As far as is practical, traffic information is given to all flights in respect of VFR flights.

Class F Airspace

Uncontrolled airspace in which operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC separation will be provided, so far as practical, to aircraft operating under IFR. Traffic Information may be given as far as is practical in respect of other flights.

Class G Airspace

Uncontrolled airspace not designated as Class A, B, C, D, E, or F. Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC separation is not provided. Traffic Information may be given as far as is practical in respect of other flights.

Clearance

Permission given by Air Traffic Control for an aircraft to proceed under certain conditions contained within the clearance.

Club Seats

Oversized seat usually found in a private aircraft.

Co-Pilot

A pilot designated to be second in command of an aircraft during flight. He will relieve the pilot if necessary. Also referred to as second-in-command.

Cockpit

The area of an airplane or helicopter where the pilot and crew control the aircraft.

Commercial Aviation

The part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline service) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or cargo. It is the purpose of the flight, not the type of aircraft or pilot, that determines whether the flight is commercial. For example, a two-seat Cessna 150 towing a banner for money would be a commercial flight, while a large jet flown by its owners for a private vacation would not be, even if the pilots were commercially certificated and the jet was commercially registered.

Concierge

Most jet operators and charter brokers serve as a concierge for their clients and should be able to handle any request from a client. A concierge is a person who assists clients with various tasks like making restaurant reservations, arranging for spa services, recommending nightclubs, booking transportation (limousines, airplanes, boats, etc.), procurement of tickets to special events and assisting with various travel arrangements and access to local attractions.

Control Surface

Any moveable surface on an aircraft which controls its motion about one of the three principal axes. Ailerons, elevators, and the rudder are examples of control surfaces. In addition, other type of roll control surfaces are roll spoilers that dump lift on one wing or another (as opposed to ailerons), spoilerons (combined spoiler and aileron), and flaperon (combined flap and aileron). Another combined controls is the ruddervator (combined elevator and rudder). Other subsidiary controls are pitch, roll, and rudder trim tabs and the stabilator (the whole horizontal stabilizer moves to trim the pitch axis).

Controlled Airspace

Aviation term used to describe airspace in which ATC has the authority to control air traffic, the level of which varies with the different classes of airspace. Controlled airspace is established mainly for three different reasons: 1- high-volume air traffic areas (e.g. near airports), 2- IFR traffic under ATC guidance, 3- security. According to the airspace classes set by ICAO, Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace are controlled. It is the opposite of uncontrolled airspace.

Corporate Jet

A private jet utilized by a company or executive for use on corporate and business related trips. Find corporate jets available for charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Corporate Jet Charter

A private jet chartered by a company or executive for use on corporate and business related trips. Find aircraft available for Corporate Jet Charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Course

The direction in which the aircraft is moving, not to be confused with the heading which is the direction the aircraft is pointing. The course and heading will usually differ because of crosswinds (see crab). The course is also different from the track which is properly the path over the ground that the aircraft has already flown (although course and track are sometimes used synonymously).

Crab

A maneuver in which an aircraft is steered slightly into a crosswind to compensate for flying slightly off course.

Crew Expenses

The costs incurred by the crew when away from home base for accommodations, transportation, and meals.

Crosswind

A surface wind that is blowing across the runway making landings and takeoffs more difficult than if the wind were blowing straight down the runway.

Cruise Speed

Cruise speed is the normal speed attained at altitude once the aircraft is no longer climbing and is en route.

Cruising Altitude

A level altitude maintained by an aircraft while in flight.

Cycle

One takeoff and landing of an aircraft is referred to as one cycle. This is one measurable used to calculate the "newness" or the "wear and tear" of an aircraft. Along with flight hours, used to determine appropriate timing for maintenance checks.

D Delta
D Check

This is most comprehensive aircraft maintenance check for the airplane, also known as a Heavy Maintenance Visit (HMV). This check occurs approximately every 4–5 years. This is the check that, more or less, takes the entire airplane apart for inspection. This requires even more space and time than all other checks, and must be performed at a maintenance base. Often, older aircraft being phased out of a particular airlines' fleet are stored or scrapped upon reaching their next check due to the high costs involved in comparison to the aircraft's value.

Daily Minimum

A cost sometimes associated with chartering a private jet. If the aircraft is sitting on the ground waiting for a return leg, the client will be assessed a daily minimum charge for keeping the aircraft out of rotation. Also, very short flights that would mathematically cost less based on flight time may be priced out based on the daily minimum.

Damp Lease

Is similar to ACMI and Wet leasing however usually without the cabin crew. The lessee will provide the cabin crew. This can only be done if the cabin crew receives SEP (Safety and Emergency Procedures) training by the lessor, in order to be acquainted with the differences of the airplane.

Day Room

A room equipped for recreation and relaxation. In order to adhere to strict duty times, pilots sometimes will require a day room, especially common on same day round trip flights.

Day-Night Average Sound Level

DNL or Ldn. The average noise level over a 24 hour period except that noise occurring at night (between the hours of 10PM and 7AM) are artificially increased by 10 dB. This weighting reflects the added intrusiveness of night noise events attributable to the fact that community background noise typically decreases by 10 dB at night. Under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 150, the FAA has established Ldn/DNL as the cumulative noise exposure metric for use in airport noise analyses, and has developed recommended guidelines for noise/land use compatibility evaluation.

Dead Head

Term used for a leg of a trip that is transporting no passengers or cargo. Also known as an empty leg. This is usually the return from dropping or the departure to a pickup. Find dead heads on the Empty Legs page of JetRequest.com.

Dead Leg

A segment of a round trip that is scheduled to be flown with no passengers. Typically these legs can be chartered for a significant discount. Also known as Empty Leg. Find dead legs on the Empty Legs page of JetRequest.com.

Dead Reckoning

The process of estimating one's current position based upon a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known speed, elapsed time, and course.

Dead Stick Landing

Dead Stick Landing refers to the process of landing an aircraft with the engines and/or propellers shut down. The aircraft is effectively gliding into its landing position.

Decible (dB)

A measure of the sound pressure of a given noise source relative to a standard reference value is the sound pressure level (SPL). This reference pressure is typical of the quietest sound that a young person with good hearing is able to detect and is measured in decibels (dB).

Deicing

When there are freezing conditions and precipitation, it is critical that an aircraft be de-iced. Failure to do so means the surface of the aircraft's wings will be too rough to provide for the smooth flow of air and thereby greatly degrading the ability of the wing to generate lift, possibly resulting in a crash. If large pieces of ice separate once the aircraft is in motion, they can be ingested into turbine engines or impact moving propellers and cause catastrophic failure. Thick ice can also lock up the control surfaces and prevent them from moving properly. Because of this potentially severe consequence, de-icing is performed at airports where temperatures are likely to dip below the freezing point.

Delta-Wing Aircraft

Aircraft with a wing plan in the form of a triangle. It is named for its similarity in shape to the Greek uppercase letter delta.

Density Altitude

Altitude in terms of the density of the air; it is corrected for non-ISA (International Standard Atmosphere) atmospheric conditions. On a very hot day, density altitude at an airport (especially one at a high elevation) may be so high as to preclude takeoff, particularly for helicopters or a heavily loaded aircraft.

Dihedral Angle

The angle that an aeroplane's wings make with a horizontal plane. A larger dihedral angle gives greater roll (lateral) stability at the cost of efficiency. If the wings angle upwards, it is called the dihedral angle. Downward angled wings are said to have an anhedral angle.

Direct Operating Cost

Expenses that are incurred while the aircraft is flying. These costs can include fuel, fuel burn, fuel additives, lubricants, maintenance labor, maintenance parts, engine restoration cost, major periodic maintenance, propeller overhaul, APU maintenance overhaul, landing and parking fees, crew expenses, small supplies and catering. Same as Variable Operating Cost.

Dirigible

A lighter-than-air craft that can be steered and propelled through the air. (See also airship)

Divan

A couch on some private jets. Usually seats 2 or 3 passengers and has seatbelts for each.

DOD

Department of Defense

DOD FLIP

Department of Defense Flight Information Publications. Used for flight planning.

Domestic Flight

Flight that takes place inside only one country. Find aircraft available for your domestic charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Double Rotation

Occurs when a flight goes from Point A to Point B to drop off passengers, returns to home base empty, then returns to Point B empty, and picks up passengers for a return to Point A. This is done when the air charter itinerary reveals it is more costly to keep the plane away from home base than to perform the double rotation. (also called Double Round Trip)

Double Round Trip

Occurs when a flight goes from Point A to Point B to drop off passengers, returns to home base empty, then returns to Point B empty, and picks up passengers for a return to Point A. This is done when the air charter itinerary reveals it is more costly to keep the plane away from home base than to perform the double rotation. (also called Double Rotation)

Drag

One of four aerodynamic forces. The resistance to the motion of a body passing through a fluid, esp through air: applied to an aircraft in flight, it is the component of the resultant aerodynamic force measured parallel to the direction of air flow.

Dry Lease

Is the lease of the basic aircraft without insurances, crew, maintenance etc. Usually dry lease is utilized by leasing companies and banks. A dry lease requires the lessee to put the aircraft on his own AOC and provide aircraft registration. A typical dry lease starts from two years onwards and bears certain conditions as far as depreciation, maintenance, insurances etc. are concerned. This depends on the geographical location, political circumstances etc. There are generally two types of dry leases, an Operating Lease and a Finance Lease.

Dual Certificate

Certificate held by an air charter operator that both publishes a schedule and provides non-scheduled air charter service.

Duty Day

The amount of time legally allowed for the aircraft crew to perform flights and flight related duties in a 24 hour period. These duty limitations are put in place to avoid pilot fatigue. The time varies slightly based on factors such as domestic flights, international flights, and weather delays. Domestic Flight time: 8 hours in a 24 hour period. This can be increased to 10 hours with the use of a co-pilot. International Flight time: 12 hours in a 24 hour period. However, once the aircraft lands in the US, the 8 hour rule takes precedent. Duty time: 14 hours in a 24 hour day. This includes pre-flight and post flight operations of the aircraft. If a pilot can receive 10 hours of rest in between flights, he or she become new again, and their flight time clock re-sets itself to zero. The rule is a maximum of 8 hours in a 24 hour period. If the pilot flies beyond the 8 or 10 hour limit due to weather, the rest period increases to 16 hours instead of the normal 10 hours. Also, pilots can fly only six consecutive day in a row before they are required to take 24 hours off.

Duty Time

The portion of the day when a crew member is on duty in any capacity, not just in-flight. This can be a constraint on long day-trips as there are FAA-imposed limits on the amount of time allowed on duty. Duty time: 14 hours in a 24 hour day. This includes pre-flight and post flight operations of the aircraft.

E Echo
EAA

Experimental Aircraft Association

EBAA

European Business Aviation Association

Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL)

EPNL measurements consist of a frequency weighting scheme considerably more complicated than the A-weighting filter used to determine SELs. They incorporate a penalty for the presence of pure tones to account for people's increased annoyance with single frequencies, such as the tones emanating from the compressor of turbofan engines. Thus, although specific values must be determined by computer analysis of a signal, EPNL has been adopted for certain specialized uses involving the noise of individual over-flights.

Elevators

On an airplane, the elevators are a control surface usually on the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. The elevators are used to control pitch.

Elevons

On an airplane, elevons are a single control surface which combines the function of the elevators and ailerons in one. They are usually seen on delta-wing aircraft.

Empennage

This is the name of the aircraft's tail configuration. The empennage includes the rudder, fin, stabilizer and elevator.

Empty Leg

A segment of a round trip that is scheduled to be flown with no passengers. Typically these legs can be chartered for a significant discount. Find empty legs on the Empty Legs page of JetRequest.com.

Empty Weight

Operating Empty Weight (OEW) is the basic weight of the aircraft when ready for operation, including crew but excluding any payload or usable fuel.

Enclosed Lavatory

A small room on an aircraft with sink and toilet. It is separated from the rest of the cabin by a door.

EPNdB

Effective Perceived Noise Level in Decibels.

EPNL

Effective Perceived Noise Level

ETA

Estimated Time of Arrival

ETOPS

Extended Operations.  ETOPS are regulations governing the design, operation and maintenance of certain airplanes operated on flights that fly long distances from an adequate airport. They codify FAA policy, industry best practices and recommendations, as well as international standards designed to ensure long-range flights will continue to operate safely. ETOPS-60, ETOPS-120, and ETOPS-180 indicate rules for aircraft flying 60, 120, and 180 minutes beyond aircraft design limits.

EU/OPS

European Union regulations specifying minimum safety and related procedures for commercial passenger and cargo fixed-wing aviation. The regulations are derived from and very similar to JAR OPS.

Executive Jet

A private jet utilized for the transportation of executives. Find executive jets available for charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Executive Jet Charter

A private jet that is chartered for the purpose of transporting executives. Find aircraft available for Executive Jet Charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Exterior Refurbishment

Renovation of the outside of the aircraft. Typically includes new paint, designs, and branding color schemes.

F Foxtrot or Fox
FAA

Federal Aviation Administration. The entity responsible for regulation of aviation in the United States.

FADEC

Full Authority Digital Engine Control. This is a latest technology for throttle to engine control - more efficient, responsive and environmentally friendly.

FAR

Federal Aviation Regulations. Rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). A wide variety of activities are regulated, such as airplane design, typical airline flights, pilot training activities, hot-air ballooning, lighter than air craft, man-made structure heights, obstruction lighting and marking, and even model rocket launches and model aircraft operation. The rules are designed to promote safe aviation, protecting pilots, passengers and the general public from unnecessary risk.

FBO

Fixed Base Operator (or Fixed Base of Operations)- a passenger terminal and fueling station for business jets and general aviation aircraft.

Feather

To rotate the pitch of the propeller blades until they are oriented directly into the airflow, providing the least air resistance and no thrust. The propeller is usually feathered when an engine fails.

Federal Aviation Regulation

FARs. Rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). A wide variety of activities are regulated, such as airplane design, typical airline flights, pilot training activities, hot-air ballooning, lighter than air craft, man-made structure heights, obstruction lighting and marking, and even model rocket launches and model aircraft operation. The rules are designed to promote safe aviation, protecting pilots, passengers and the general public from unnecessary risk.

Federal Excise Tax

FET. Fees imposed by all levels of government on producers, manufacturers and importers of goods and activities. Private operators pay a fuel tax, while commercial firms pay taxes based on the amount of property transported. Passenger taxes are based on segments of the flight, a head tax and/or a percentage of the fee collected for travel.

Ferry Flight

A non-revenue flight for the purpose of returning an aircraft to base, positioning an empty aircraft, or moving an aircraft to and from a maintenance base.

FET

Federal Excise Tax. Fees imposed by all levels of government on producers, manufacturers and importers of goods and activities. Private operators pay a fuel tax, while commercial firms pay taxes based on the amount of property transported. Passenger taxes are based on segments of the flight, a head tax and/or a percentage of the fee collected for travel.

Final Assembly

Putting all the pieces together - much like a car assembly line. The parts come together and an airplane exits in a roll-out.

Finance Lease

Also known as a capital lease, is defined when one of the following conditions are met: 1) at the end of the lease term the Lessee has the option to purchase the aircraft at an agreed price. 2) the lease payments are more than 90% of the market value of the aircraft. 3) the term of the lease is over 75% of the aircraft's usable life. With a finance lease the aircraft appears on the Lessee's balance sheet, as it is viewed as a purchase. A finance lease is a type of dry lease.

Fixed Operating Cost

Expenses that are incurred whether the aircraft is flying or not. These costs can include crew salaries, hangar expenses, insurance, recurrent crew training, aircraft modernization, refurbishing, computer maintenance program, navigational chart service, and aviation weather service.

Flaperon

A control surface on an aircraft wing functioning both as a flap and as an aileron.

Fleet

A number of aircraft operating together or under the same ownership.

Flight Attendant

Also referred to as cabin crew (historically known as stewards/stewardesses or air hosts/hostesses) are members of an aircrew employed by airlines and operators primarily to ensure the safety but also the comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights and on select business jet aircraft. Flight attendants are almost always on board heavy jet flights, but less likely to be on midsize and light jet charters.

Flight Cycle

One takeoff and landing of an aircraft is referred to as one flight cycle. This is one measurable used to calculate the "newness" or the "wear and tear" of an aircraft. Along with flight hours, used to determine appropriate timing for maintenance checks.

Flight Hours

The number of hours an aircraft has flown during its life. This is one measurable used to calculate the "newness" or the "wear and tear" of an aircraft. Along with flight cycles, used to determine appropriate timing for maintenance checks.

Flight Level

Flight level is the nominal altitude of an aircraft referenced to a standard pressure datum, as opposed to the real altitude above mean sea level.

Forward

At, toward, or of the front, or forepart of an aircraft.

Fractional Ownership

Fractional ownership is a popular investment in the private air travel arena. Essentially, a flyer purchases a partial interest in an aircraft that is operated by an aviation company as part of its fleet. As an owner, the flyer has the right to use any comparable aircraft in the fleet, on demand, for a predetermined number of hours each year. Generally speaking, fractional ownership is said to be for those who fly between 50 and 200 hours per year. A typical agreement might include 100 hours of flying time per year for each 1/8 share. The fractional provider manages the aircraft and the rest of its fleet, providing pilots, maintenance, insurance, catering and other services.

Fractional Share

A percentage of ownership in a Fractional Ownership program. Usually in increments of 1/8 shares. These percentages allow for a certain amount of flight hours on a jet comparable to the jet a flyer owns a portion of.

FSDO

Flight Standards District Offices. FSDOs are regional offices of the United States Federal Aviation Administration. There are about 82 such regional offices nationwide.

Fuel Burn

The amount of fuel an aircraft consumes during its various operations.

Fuel Surcharges

An extra percentage charge added to the total cost of a trip or delivery due to the increased price of fuel.

Fuselage

The central body of an aircraft, to which the wings and tail assembly are attached and which accommodates the crew, passengers, and cargo.

G Golf
GADO

General Aviation District Office of the FAA  is the most local branch of the FAA, also the entity most likely to know the specific history of an air charter operator.

Galley

The kitchen of an aircraft.

GAMA

General Aviation Manufacturers Association

GBAA

German Business Aviation Association

GenAv

Shorthand term for General Aviation.

General Aviation

One of the two categories of civil aviation. Private flights are in this category. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights. The majority of the world's air traffic falls into this category, and most of the world's airports serve general aviation exclusively.

Glider

An unpowered fixed-wing heavier-than-air craft. (See also sailplane)

Global Positioning System (GPS)

A space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable positioning, velocity, and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Highly accurate navigation aid.

Gravity

The natural force of attraction exerted by a celestial body, such as Earth, upon objects at or near its surface, tending to draw them toward the center of the body. One of the forces of flight.

Great Circle Distance

The shortest distance between two points on a globe.

Green Aircraft

A green aircraft from the OEM is literally green on the outside from being coated with oxidized paint, and is completely empty down to the interior cabin belt frames. It is a completed flyable airframe, but certainly nothing the customer will ever be able to use or place into service for themselves until the interior has been designed, engineered, installed and completely certified with a fresh Certificate of Airworthiness.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

Mean solar time at the village of Greenwich near London which, as decided at the International Meridian Congress of 1884, is assigned 0 degrees longitude (called Prime Meridian). Because it is based on the Earth's rotation (which is irregular) it actually follows a fictitious Mean Sun that moves at a uniform speed along the equator. A 19th century worldwide time standard, it was replaced in 1970 by the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) for astronomical and navigational use, but is still in common use by airlines and radio and television stations. When expressed in terms of a 24-hour clock, GMT is also called universal time (UT or Z). It is five hours ahead of the US Eastern Standard Time (EST) during standard period, and four hours ahead during daylight-saving period.

Ground Speed

The speed of an aircraft's shadow as it travels over the ground. If you have a strong tailwind, it will be faster than the actual airspeed measured in the cockpit.

Ground Transportation

A service provided for luxury jet charters before or after a flight. Ground transportation can be limo service or luxury car rental.

Grounded

Term used to describe an aircraft that is not allowed to fly for whatever reason- ranging from mechanical issues and inspections to bad weather and volcanic ash clouds.

Guaranteed Hours

The number of hours of flight time a flyer will commit to purchase when leasing an aircraft or buying block hours. If the flyer utilizes the aircraft for fewer hours in the stated time period, they will still be obligated to pay for the guaranteed hours.

H Hotel
Hangar

A huge garage-type building for airplanes.

Hangar Fees

The cost incurred when keeping an aircraft in a hangar. Costs vary based on the size of the hangar a particular jet will require.

Heading

The direction in which an aircraft is pointing measure clockwise in degrees from North. Note that this is not necessarily the same as the aircraft's track because of wind.

Headwind

A wind which is blowing in the opposite direction to the direction of movement or flight.

Heavy Jet

An aircraft with a minimum takeoff weight of 255,000 lbs. They are typically configured for 12 to 18 passengers. See examples of Heavy Jets on JetRequest.com.

Heavy Maintenance Visit

HMV. This is most comprehensive aircraft maintenance check for the airplane, also known as a D Check. This check occurs approximately every 4–5 years. This is the check that, more or less, takes the entire airplane apart for inspection. This requires even more space and time than all other checks, and must be performed at a maintenance base. Often, older aircraft being phased out of a particular airlines' fleet are stored or scrapped upon reaching their next check due to the high costs involved in comparison to the aircraft's value.

Height Altitude

The elevation above a certain ground reference point, commonly the terrain elevation.

Helicopter

A rotor craft with one or more sets of powered blades. See examples of Helicopters on JetRequest.com.

Helipad

Helicopter landing pad. Used for takeoffs, landings and occasionally for parking of helicopters.

Heliport

An airport for helicopters. In includes the area of land or water used for the landings and takeoffs, as well as the buildings, structures and grounds.

High Altitude Airport

An airport that is located a good distance above sea level, such as in Tibet. At high altitude airports, planes might need longer runways, have to fly with a smaller payload, or have a dramatically slowed down approach.

HMV

Heavy Maintenance Visit. This is most comprehensive aircraft maintenance check for the airplane, also known as a D Check. This check occurs approximately every 4–5 years. This is the check that, more or less, takes the entire airplane apart for inspection. This requires even more space and time than all other checks, and must be performed at a maintenance base. Often, older aircraft being phased out of a particular airlines' fleet are stored or scrapped upon reaching their next check due to the high costs involved in comparison to the aircraft's value.

Holding Pattern

An oval flight pattern with two parallel sides and two turns, flown usually while an aircraft is waiting for clearance to land.

Home Base

The home airfield and where the aircraft is primarily located when on the ground.

HOTAC

Hotel Accommodation

Hypersonic

Designating, of, or traveling at a speed equal to about five times the speed of sound or greater.

Hypoxia

Oxygen deprivation sickness caused by flying at high altitudes in an unpressurized cabin or without an oxygen mask. It causes dizziness and affects pilot judgment.

I India
IATA

International Air Transport Association

IATA Code

These location indicators are codes consisting of exactly three letters. These codes are used by airlines for reservations, ticketing and baggage checking. They are (usually) easily interpreted.

IBAA

Italian Business Aviation Association

IBAC

International Business Aviation Council

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICAO Code

Location indicator is a four-letter alphanumeric code designating each airport around the world. These codes are defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization. They are typically used in private travel.

IFR

Instrument Flight Rules. A regulatory term describing a flight which may be conducted in conditions where the pilot cannot see outside the aircraft (e.g. in cloud and fog) and must fly only by his instruments. Compare to Visual Flight Rules. Also not to be confused with the navigational technique often used by novice pilots called "I Follow Railroads."

ILS

Instrument Landing System. Under low visibility conditions, this system allows an aircraft to land by following instruments that show "up/down" and "left/right" directions to the runway.

Indicated Air Speed

IAS. The airspeed read directly from the airspeed indicator on an aircraft. The IAS is an important value for the pilot because it directly indicates stall speed and various airframe structurally limited speeds, regardless of density altitude. Furthermore the IAS is specified in regard to airspeed restrictions below certain altitudes since it is the primary speed indicator in an aircraft when operated below transonic or supersonic speeds.

Indicated Altitude

The reading on the altimeter when the altimeter is set to the local barometric pressure at Mean Sea Level.

Instrument Flight Rules

IFR. A regulatory term describing a flight which may be conducted in conditions where the pilot cannot see outside the aircraft (e.g. in cloud and fog) and must fly only by his instruments. Compare to Visual Flight Rules.

Instrument Meteorological Conditions

Conditions such as visibility, distance between clouds, ceiling level that are below the specified standard minimums for visual meteorological conditions.

Insurance

Many jet charter operators carry a minimum of $50,000,000 insurance combined single limit, bodily injury to passengers property damage liability.

Interim Lift

The use of aircraft by individuals or corporations who find themselves in any of the following situations: awaiting for delivery of a new aircraft, aircraft undergoing scheduled or unscheduled maintenance, requiring additional lift while evaluating purchase of another aircraft, ongoing low-risk evaluation of an initial aircraft acquisition. Find Interim Lift availble for charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Interior Refurbishment

Renovation of the inside of the aircraft. This typically includes new seats, carpet, upholstery, color schemes, cabinetry, sound proofing, etc.

International Flight

Flight that originates in one country and ends in another country. Find aircraft available for your international charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

IS-BAO

International Standard for Business Aircraft Operations. IS-BAO was developed by the industry for the benefit of the industry. It is a code of best practices designed to help flight departments worldwide achieve a high level of safety and professionalism.

J Juliet
JAR OPS

Joint Aviation Requirement for the operation of commercial air transport. Any commercial airline within the European Union flying jet or propeller aircraft has to comply with this standard. EU OPS is the replacement for JAR OPS.

JBAA

Japan Business Aviation Association

Jet Airliner

A jet airliner is a jet engine powered, wide body heavy airplane that is traditionally used for commercial travel.  The term is sometimes contracted to jetliner. See examples of Jet Airliners on JetRequest.com.

Jet Card

Card issued by Jet Operators and Charter Brokers to clients who choose to keep funds on account. For convenience, reduced costs, and other reasons, some jet charter flyers will choose to open an account with the Air Charter Operator or Jet Charter Broker of their choice. Most jet cards are purchased in block hours or in a straight dollar for dollar method.

Jet Charter

The act of renting or leasing an aircraft with crew for the purpose of private air transportation. Find private jet aircraft available for Jet Charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Jet Charter Broker

One who facilitates the leasing or purchasing of jet charter. A Jet Charter Broker is different from an Air Charter Agent as he does not act on behalf of either the end user of the chartered aircraft or on behalf of the charter operator. A Jet Charter Broker acts as the middleman in acquiring a charter flight for their client. Find listings of Jet Charter Brokers.

Jet Lag

A disruption of circadian rhythms, associated with high-speed travel by jet airplane to distant time zones.

Jet Stream

At high altitudes, a stream of high speed winds that migrates depending on continental weather patterns.

Jet-A

The standard jet fuel in the United States used since the 1950s.

Jump Seat

A small, folding seat in some aircraft.

K Kilo
Kinds of Speed

There are different "kinds" of airspeed: True airspeed (TAS), Indicated airspeed (IAS), Calibrated airspeed (CAS), and Ground speed (GS).

Knot

A unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour. One nautical mile is about 1.15 statute miles.

L Lima
Landing Distance

The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing. Landing distances consist basically of two segments: the air run from a height of 50 feet to the surface accompanied by a slight deceleration and flare, and the ground deceleration from the touchdown speed to a stop.

Landing Gear

Structure that supports the aircraft's weight when it is not airborne, often including a shock absorbing mechanism. Wheels can be used for hard surfaces, skis or skids for ice or snow, and floats or pontoons if landing on the water. Some aircraft like flying boats do not require landing gear, since their hull can support them on water.

Landing Slot

Rights allocated to an entity by an airport or government agency granting the slot owner the right to schedule a landing or departure during a specific time period. Also referred to as airport slot.

Landing Strip

A strip of land at an airport on which aircraft can take off and land and forms part of the maneuvering area. Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt). Also called a runway.

Landing Weight

The weight of an aircraft as it lands at the destination. This is the brake release weight minus the trip fuel burnt. It includes the zero fuel weight, unusable fuel and all alternate, holding, and reserve fuel.

Lateral Separation

The spacing of aircraft traffic on the same lateral plain or altitude.

Lav Seat

A certified and belted seat located in the lavatory of some aircraft. When chartering a private jet, make sure your desired capacity and seating arrangements coincide with whether or not you or one of your party would mind sitting on the lav seat.

Lavatory

The room in the jet equipped with washing toilet facilities; a bathroom or restroom.

Layover

A night spent in the middle of the trip in a city other than home base for the aircraft and crew.

Leg

A single direction of travel between two points. For an air charter itinerary, a leg could be represented by repositioning and fuel stops.

Lift

1- A force of flight, created primarily by wings acting in opposite direction of gravity vector, and that's a good thing when taking off.

2- Term used to identify an aircraft available to fly. "Do you have any lift?" Find Lift on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Light Jet

An aircraft with a certified takeoff weight of 41,000 lbs or less. They typically have seating capacity for 5 to 7 passengers. See examples of Light Jets on JetRequest.com.

Light Sport Aircraft

LSA. Classification of aircraft specific to the United States. It has a maximum gross takeoff weight of not more than 1,320 pounds (600 kg) for aircraft not intended for operation on water; or 1,430 pounds (650 kg) for aircraft intended for operation on water; a maximum airspeed in level flight of 120 knots (220 km/h; 140 mph).

LOC

Local time. The time of day at a certain location in the world to the people at that location.

Local Airport Advisory

LAA. A service that provides information such as wind direction and speed, favored runway pertinent know traffic airport taxi routes and authorized approach procedures to pilots of arriving or departing aircraft.

Log

A record of the aircraft's speed, progress, routings, etc, and of the events in its journey; logbook. Also a record of a pilot's flying time, experience, etc.

Longitudinal Axis

An imaginary line through an aircraft from nose to tail, passing through its center of gravity. The longitudinal axis is also called the roll axis of the aircraft.

Longitudinal Separation

The separation of aircraft following the same course at the same altitude. In simpler terms, it is the separation required between two aircraft flying one in front of the other. The distance is expressed either as time or miles.

Look and Book

Used in conjunction with Owner Approval. Used to describe an owner who almost always approves the charter itinerary requested by the operator managing their aircraft.

Luxury Jet

A private jet utilized by an individual or company for the purpose of flying at the height of luxury. Find Luxury Jets available for charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Luxury Jet Charter

A private jet chartered by an individual or company for the purpose of flying at the height of luxury. Find aircraft available for Luxury Jet Charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

M Mike
Mach

A unit of measure of air speed. Mach 1 is the speed of sound - Mach .92 is the Citation X, the world's fastest business jet.

Mach Speed

The ratio of one's true airspeed to the speed of sound.

Maintenance Check

Periodic checks that have to be done on all aircraft after a certain amount of time or usage. Airlines and airworthiness authorities casually refer to the detailed inspections as "checks", commonly one of the following: A check, B check, C check, or D check. A and B checks are lighter checks, while C and D are considered heavier checks.

MAYDAY

An international radiotelephone signal word used by aircraft and ships in distress. Repeat MAYDAY to indicate an imminent and grave danger that requires assistance.

MEBAA

Middle East Business Aviation Association

Mechanical

Term used when an aircraft has to be grounded for unscheduled maintenance issues. This can be a nuisance to operators, brokers, and their clients because they will have to find replacement lift for the scheduled itinerary.

Medevac, Medivac

Medical evacuation. Usually for emergencies, it is the ambulance flight service of many helicopter and jet charter companies.

MEL

Minimum Equipment List. Identifies equipment installed on the aircraft that may under certain conditions be inoperative and still allow the aircraft to be airworthy. Removal of any item of equipment that affects the airworthiness of an aircraft requires following an approved procedure. A properly certified maintenance person must record the removal in accordance with proper CFR (Code of Federal regulations). A person authorized by FAR’s must make the appropriate adjustments to the aircraft’s weight and balance information and the aircraft for return to service. The operator must evaluate any proposed deactivation to assure there is no adverse effect that could render another system less than fully capable of its intended function. As long as an item is on the list, if it is broken the plane will be allowed to fly and the item can be repaired in a designated time frame. An MEL could also be thought of as an "inoperative equipment list" since the plane can fly and be air worthy without the listed items beings in working order.

Metal Bonding

This process bonds pieces of metal together instead of riveting, thereby making the assembly stronger and more durable in some aircraft.

METAR

Format for reporting weather information. A METAR weather report is predominantly used by pilots in fulfillment of a part of a pre-flight weather briefing, and by meteorologists, who use aggregated METAR information to assist in weather forecasting. Reports typically come from airports or permanent weather observation stations. Reports are typically generated once an hour; if conditions change significantly, however, they can be updated in special reports called SPECI's.

Microburst

A sudden, violent downdraft of air over a small area. Microbursts are difficult to detect and predict with standard weather instruments and are especially hazardous to airplanes during landing or takeoff. Winds have been known to reach up to 150 knots.

Midsize Jet

An aircraft with a certified takeoff weight ranging between 41,000 lbs. to 255,000 lbs. They typically have seating capacity for 7 to 9 passengers. See examples of Midsize Jets on JetRequest.com.

Minimum Equipment List

MEL. Identifies equipment installed on the aircraft that may under certain conditions be inoperative and still allow the aircraft to be airworthy. Removal of any item of equipment that affects the airworthiness of an aircraft requires following an approved procedure. A properly certified maintenance person must record the removal in accordance with proper CFR (Code of Federal regulations). A person authorized by FAR’s must make the appropriate adjustments to the aircraft’s weight and balance information and the aircraft for return to service. The operator must evaluate any proposed deactivation to assure there is no adverse effect that could render another system less than fully capable of its intended function. As long as an item is on the list, if it is broken the plane will be allowed to fly and the item can be repaired in a designated time frame. An MEL could also be thought of as an "inoperative equipment list" since the plane can fly and be air worthy without the listed items beings in working order.

Minimum Separation

The minimum vertical or horizontal distance allowed between two aircraft.

Moment

A measurement of weight at a specific distance (moment arm) from a reference point. This measurement is used to verify the aircraft is within the Center of Gravity (CG) limits. Reference points vary between aircraft.

Monocoque

An object (as in a wing or fuselage) whose skin supports the load as opposed to an internal frame.

Monoplane

An aeroplane with one wing (or pairs of wings).

MRO

Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul. Some companies specialize in the fixing of any sort of mechanical or electrical device should they become out of order or broken (known as repair, unscheduled or casualty maintenance). They also take care of performing routine actions which keep the device in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). These companies are called MROs.

MSN

Manufacturer Serial Number

MSP / MSP Gold

Maintenance Service Plan offered by Honeywell for their engines.

MTOW

Maximum Takeoff Weight or Maximum Takeoff Mass. The maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits.

Multi-Leg Trip

A trip that has an itinerary requiring more than the two stops of a traditional round trip. Find transient aircraft available for your Multi-Leg trip on the Transient Availability page of JetRequest.com.

N November
N-Numbers

Federal Government aircraft registration numbers, or tail numbers. In the United States, many times they are referred to as N-Numbers because the U.S. registrations start with the letter N. Examples of prefixes: US - N, Canada - C or CF, Germany - D, United Kingdom - G, France - F, or Japan - JA.

Nacelle

The enclosed compartment in which an engine is mounted. French nacelle, from Latin, navicella (little ship).

NATA

National Air Transportation Association

National Airspace System

An intricate network of systems that involve the definitions of airspace both above and below you as well as all information having to do with that airspace. Airports, air charts, navigation, instruments, weather, rules and regulations are all part of the National Airspace System.

Nautical Mile

A unit of length used in sea and air navigation, based on the length of one minute of arc of a great circle, especially an international and U.S. unit equal to 1,852 meters (about 6,076 feet). Also called sea mile. One knot is equal to one nautical mile per hour.

Navaids

Navigation Aids give visual reference to the ground. They include items such as beacons which can be used to help pilots land safely in low visibility. They are also used as a reference point in establishing and maintaining the position of an aircraft that is awaiting further clearance from air traffic control other wise known as “in holding”.

Navigation

The practice of recording, planning and controlling the movement of an aircraft from one point to another.

NBAA

National Business Aviation Association. JetRequest.com is a member of NBAA.

No Fly Zone

A no-fly zone is a territory over which aircraft are not permitted to fly. Such zones are usually set up in a military context, somewhat like a demilitarized zone in the sky.

Noise Mitigation and Abatement

In the United States, since aviation noise became a public issue in the late 1960s, governments have enacted legislative controls. Aircraft designers, manufacturers, and operators have developed quieter aircraft and better operating procedures. Modern high-bypass turbofan engines, for example, are quieter than the turbojets and low-bypass turbofans of the 1960s. First, FAA Aircraft Certification achieved noise reductions classified as 'Stage 3' aircraft; which has been upgraded to 'Stage 4' noise certification resulting in quieter aircraft. This has resulted in lower noise exposures in spite of increased traffic growth and popularity.

NOTAM

Notice to Airmen. NOTAMs are created and transmitted by government agencies. A NOTAM is filed with an aviation authority to alert aircraft pilots of any hazards en route or at a specific location. The authority in turn provides a means of disseminating relevant NOTAMs to pilots. NOTAMs are issued (and reported) for a number of reasons, such as: hazards such as air-shows, parachute jumps, kite flying, rocket launches, etc.; flights by important people such as heads of state (sometimes referred to as Temporary Flight Restrictions, TFRs); closed runways; inoperable radio navigational aids; military exercises with resulting airspace restrictions; inoperable lights on tall obstructions; temporary erection of obstacles near airfields (e.g. cranes); passage of flocks of birds through airspace (a NOTAM in this category is known as a BIRDTAM); notifications of runway/taxiway/apron status with respect to snow, ice and standing water (a SNOWTAM); notification of an operationally significant change in volcanic ash or other dust contamination (an ASHTAM); and software code risk announcements with associated patches to reduce specific vulnerabilities.

O Oscar
Occupied Flight Time

Flight time used with paying passengers on board the jet.

Oceanic Airspace

The airspace over the oceans of the world. It is considered international airspace, where oceanic separation and procedure as per the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) are applied. Air traffic control services in oceanic airspace are provided by countries given such responsibility by the ICAO based upon geographical proximity and the availability of required resources.

OCIP

Optimized Continuous Inspection Program offered by Dassault.

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer. An OEM manufactures products or components that are purchased by a company and retailed under the purchasing company's brand name. OEM refers to the company that originally manufactured the product.

On Demand Charter

Rental of a jet aircraft or helicopter one trip at a time. These trips can be one-ways, round trips, or multi-leg flights. Find aircraft available for On-Demand-Charter Flights on the Empty Legs or Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

One-Way

A jet charter that is only needed for one leg. Typically, securing an empty leg is the best was to get a discounted price on a one-way flight. Find One-Ways on the Empty Legs page of JetRequest.com.

Operating Lease

Generally a lease term that is short compared to the economic life of the aircraft being leased. An operating lease is commonly used to acquire aircraft for a term of 2-7 years. With an operating lease the aircraft doesn't appear on the Lessee's balance sheet. An Operating Lease is a type of Dry Lease.

Operator

Also Charter Operator. A company or individual that holds aircraft charter certificates and provides charter services to retail and wholesale customers. Request a private jet directly from an Operator on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Overflight

An aircraft flight over a particular area, especially over foreign territory.

Overflight Permit

Permission needed to fly over foreign territories. Different countries require different amounts of time in order to grant an overflight permit.

Overhaul

The maintenance procedure in which an airplane, or its components, is disassembled, inspected, serviced, if necessary repaired, and restored to a condition of normal operation.

Overnight

Term used for aircraft staying over night at an airport that is not its home base.

Overnight Fee

Fee assessed by some FBOs for keeping the aircraft there overnight.

Overshoot

To fly an aircraft well beyond a runway threshold or planned spot while trying to land. Opposite of undershoot.

Owner Approval

When the jet owner must first approve the use of the aircraft for the requested charter mission. An operator or broker will give the client an estimated cost "Pending Owner Approval".

P Papa
PAN PAN

A call used to signify that there is an urgency on board a boat, ship, aircraft or other vehicle but that, for the time being at least, there is no immediate danger to anyone's life or to the vessel itself. This is referred to as a state of urgency.

Parallel

Any of the imaginary lines parallel to the equator and representing degrees of latitude on the earth's surface. Parallels are also used in designating Ports of Entry.

Parking Fee

Same as Ramp Fee. Cost assessed by an FBO when an aircraft needs to be parked on the ramp for the day or overnight. Many FBOs will waive parking fees with a minimal amount of fuel purchase.

Part 121

FAA Part 121- Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations. Certificate required for an operator / air carrier to publish scheduled trips (commercial aviation).

Part 135

FAA Part 135- Operating Requirements: Commuter and On Demand Operations and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft. Certificate required for a charter provider to operate as a non scheduled air carrier (i.e. commuter and on-demand charter). It is a set of rules with more stringent standards for commuter and on demand operations.

Part 91

FAA Part 91- General Operating and Flight Rules. They are the general operating rules for all aircraft. Part 91, Subpart (K), prescribes operating rules for fractional ownership programs.

Pax

Aviation Industry shorthand referring to passengers.

Payload

Anything that an aircraft carries beyond what is required for its operation during flight, theoretically that from which revenue is derived, such as cargo, passengers, and baggage.

Personal Jet

A private jet that is intended for the sole use, or at the discretion of, the owner.

Pilot

One who operates or is licensed to operate an aircraft in flight.

Pilot in Command

The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight.

Piston

A solid cylinder that fits into a larger cylinder and moves under fluid pressure, as in petrol and diesel engines or compresses fluids, as in pumps and compressors.

Piston Aircraft

Piston airplanes have one or more piston-powered engines connected to the propeller(s), which provide thrust to move the aircraft on the ground and through the air. Piston-powered aircraft most commonly use 100 octane low-leaded fuel and fly at altitudes below 15,000 feet. The inside of a typical piston aircraft seats 1-6 passengers is configured similar to the interior of a small car. Piston aircraft used for business typically fly relatively short missions of 300-400 miles, using very small general aviation airports that are often without air traffic control towers. Find Piston Aircraft available for charter flights on the Empty Legs or Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Piston Engine

A petrol or diesel engine in which pistons are moved by combustion of fuel, this reciprocating movement producing rotating movement.

Pitch

1- Of the three axes in flight, this specifies the vertical action, the up-and-down movement. Compare roll and yaw.

2- The angle of a propeller or rotor blade in relation to its arc; also the distance advanced by a blade in one full rotation.

Pitot Tube

A small tube most often mounted on the outward leading edge of an airplane wing that measures the impact pressure of the air it meets in flight. Named for the French scientist Henri Pitot. Pronounced (pea toe).

Polar Navigation

Navigation in polar regions, where unique considerations and techniques are applied; no definite limit for these regions is recognized, but polar navigation techniques are usually used from about latitude 70° to the nearest pole, north or south.

Port of Entry

Place where one may lawfully enter a country. It typically has a staff of persons who check passports and visas and inspect luggage to assure that contraband is not imported. International airports are usually ports of entry. Ports of entry are responsible for daily port specific operations. Agents enforce the import and export laws and regulations and conduct immigration policy and programs. Ports also perform agriculture inspections to protect the country from potential carriers of animal and plant pests or diseases that could cause serious damage to the native crops, livestock, pets, and the environment. Official ports of entry from different originations are determined by parallels of latitude.

Positioning

Ferrying aircraft for departure from other than its base airport. Also applies for return flight.

Potty Seat

A certified and belted seat located in the lavatory of some aircraft. When chartering a private jet, make sure your desired capacity and seating arrangements coincide with whether or not you or one of your party would mind sitting on the potty seat.

Powerplant

A powered aircraft's source of power, usually either a jet engine or a conventional engine and propeller.

Pressure Altitude

The elevation above a standard datum air-pressure plane. The pressure altitude and indicated altitude are the same when the altimeter is set to 1013 hPa (29.92" Hg US and Canada).

Pressurization

The act of increasing the air pressure inside the aircraft cabin so that it feels normal for the occupants when the outside air pressure decreases.

Pressurized Cabin

The occupied portion of an aircraft in which the air pressure has been raised above that of the ambient atmosphere by the compression of the atmosphere into this space.

Private Airport

An airport used by general and private aviation but is not accessible by scheduled airline travel. Find private airports in the Airport Directory of JetRequest.com.

Private Jet

A jet owned by an individual or corporation which is used solely at their discretion. Find private jets available for charter flights on the Empty Legs or Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Private Jet Charter

Aircraft charter for private use. A private jet charter is used to fill mission requirements (business or personal) of the charter client but does not necessarily go above and beyond in luxury and amenities. Find available private jet charter flights on the Empty Legs or Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Prohibited Airspace

Refers to an area of airspace within which flight of aircraft is not allowed, usually due to security concerns. It differs from Restricted airspace in which entry is typically forbidden at all times from all aircraft and is not subject to clearance from ATC or the airspace's controlling body.

Propeller

A machine for propelling an aircraft, consisting of a power-driven shaft with radiating blades that are placed so as to thrust air in a desired direction when spinning.

Q Quebec
Q-Star

A private company that provides independently audited reports for private jet charter operators.

Quaternion

A system of representing attitude by measuring angle of aircraft center line with respect to three orthogonal axes plus rotation about centerline. Quaternions are used over Euler angles (pitch, roll, yaw) when pitch can approach 90-degrees because of a singularity on Euler angles at 90-degrees. Discrete-time computations using quaternions can run more slowly than those with Euler angles while producing results of the same accuracy.

R Romeo
Radar

Any of several systems or devices using transmitted and reflected radio waves for detecting a reflecting object, as an aircraft, and determining its direction, distance, height, or speed, or in storm detection, mapping, navigation, etc.

Radar Flight Following

Radar service provided by air-traffic control (ATC) that keeps aircraft in positive radar control throughout the entirety of the flight. Radar flight following starts when the pilot requests it, usually at the time of takeoff, to the when pilot cancels it usually at the time of landing.

Ramp

The apron or open "tarmac" in front of an FBO or terminal facility. This space is busy, used for deplanement, parking of aircraft, etc. Some facilities will permit automobiles to drive to the aircraft on the ramp, a feature of real benefit to the traveler with heavy or bulky luggage.

Ramp Fee

Same as Parking Fee. Cost assessed by an FBO when an aircraft needs to be parked on the ramp for the day or overnight. Many FBOs will waive ramp fees with a minimal amount of fuel purchase.

Ramp Weight

The weight of an aircraft at the terminal building when ready for departure. This includes the zero fuel weight and all required fuel.

Range

The maximum distance that can be covered by an aircraft with a specified payload before its fuel supply is exhausted.

Rate of Climb (RoC)

Speed at which an aircraft increases its altitude.

Repositioning

Ferrying aircraft for departure from other than its base airport. Also applies for return flight.

Repositioning Fees

Cost incurred by a charter client when the aircraft they want to fly on must ferry to their desired departure airport from a different airport.

Repositioning Time

The travel time for a chartered aircraft from its base airport to the pickup airport.

Restricted Airspace

Refers to an area of airspace in which the local controlling authorities have determined that air traffic must be restricted (if not continually prohibited) for safety or security concerns. According to the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): "Restricted areas denote the existence of unusual, often invisible, hazards to aircraft such as artillery firing, aerial gunnery, or guided missiles. Penetration of restricted areas without authorization from the using or controlling agency may be extremely hazardous to the aircraft and its occupants."

Roger

A reply to indicate that the speaker has heard and understood the previous message. Not to be confused with "Wilco". Roger does NOT indicate the speaker will comply - that's Wilco's job.

Roll

Rotation about an axis aligned with the direction in which the aircraft is flying. This axis is also known as the longitudinal axis.

Roll Axis

An imaginary line through an aircraft from nose to tail, passing through its center of gravity. The roll axis is also called the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

Roll Out

The term used to describe a new aircraft exiting the assembly line after final assembly.

Rotations

1- One complete round trip is one rotation- Airport A to Airport B to Airport A.

2- In flight dynamics, the principal rotations are known as pitch, roll, and yaw. The term rotation is also used in aviation to refer to the upward pitch (nose moves up) of an aircraft, particularly when starting the climb after takeoff.

Rotorcraft

An aircraft that derives its lift from rotating lifting surfaces (usually called blades).

Round Trip

A journey to a given place and back again, usually over the same route. Find aircraft available for your Round Trip on the Transient Aircraft page of JetRequest.com.

Rudder

A control surface on fixed-wing aircraft, usually mounted at aft end of the vertical stabilizer, which sticks up (like a dorsal fin). Controls yaw (heading), and is controlled by the pedals.

Ruddervator

On an airplane, ruddervators are a single control surface which combine the function of the rudder and elevators in one. They are usually seen on V-tail aircraft.

Runway

RWY. A strip of land at an airport on which aircraft can take off and land and forms part of the maneuvering area. Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt).

Runway Heading

The magnetic direction that corresponds with the runway centerline extended, not the painted runway number. Runway headings are in increments of ten degrees and no more than two numbers. For example: a runway oriented to the magnetic direction “360” would be named “runway 36”. On the actual runway itself, the numbers 36 would be painted just after the runway threshold to clarify the proper runway heading for approaching and departing planes.

RVR

Runway visual range as measured in the touchdown zone area.

S Sierra
Sailplane

An unpowered fixed-wing heavier-than-air craft. (Also glider)

SATCOM

Satellite Communications, on intercontinental airliners and business jets for (non- operational) air-to-ground voice communications via ground relay stations. SATCOM provides worldwide coverage, with the exception of operation at the high latitudes (such as needed for flights over the poles).

Scheduled Air Transport

Includes all passenger and cargo flights operating on regularly-scheduled routes.

Second in Command

A pilot designated to be second in command of an aircraft during flight. He will relieve the pilot if necessary. Also referred to as co-pilot.

Segment

Describes the unit of flight between take-off and landing. Sometimes used interchangeably with the term leg.

Segment Fees

A per-person, per-leg fee imposed by the federal government on flights.

SEP

Short for Single Engine Piston aircraft. Find specs of Single Engine Piston aircraft on JetRequest.com.

Separation

Maintaining a specific minimum distance between an aircraft and another aircraft or terrain to avoid collisions, normally by requiring aircraft to fly at set levels or level bands, on set routes or in certain directions, or by controlling an aircraft's speed.

Separation Standards

Internationally agreed upon minimum separation limits for aircraft in flight.

Serial Number

A serial number is a unique number assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. The complete aircraft serial number is assigned to the aircraft by the manufacturer.

Sesquiplane

An aeroplane with two wings (or pairs of wings), where one (often the lower) is significantly smaller than the other in span and/or chord.

Sideline

A specified point to the side of the runway. Many times, used as one of the locations for measuring aircraft noise levels.

SIGMET

Significant Meteorological Information. An advisory issued in times of severe weather that is significant to the safety of all aircraft.

Single Engine Piston Airplane

Single Engine Piston airplanes have one piston-powered engine connected to the propeller, which provide thrust to move the aircraft on the ground and through the air. See examples of Single Engine Piston Aircraft on JetRequest.com.

Sky Card

Same as Jet Card. Card issued by Jet Operators and Charter Brokers to clients who choose to keep funds on account. For convenience, reduced costs, and other reasons, some jet charter flyers will choose to open an account with the Air Charter Operator or Jet Charter Broker of their choice. Most jet cards are purchased in block hours or in a straight dollar for dollar method.

Slip

A maneuver where an airplane pilot rolls the aircraft in one direction with the ailerons and yaws it in the opposite direction with the rudder. This results in the aircraft continuing to move forward but presenting a larger cross-section to the oncoming air - thereby creating drag and causing the aeroplane to lose altitude rapidly in a controlled manner.

Slipstream

The turbulent flow of air driven backward by the propeller or propellers of an aircraft.

Slot

Landing slots or Airport slots are rights allocated to an entity by an airport or government agency granting the slot owner the right to schedule a landing or departure during a specific time period. Also the particular time at which an aircraft is scheduled to depart.

SOP

Standard Operating Procedures outline the criteria which enables flight crew to perform their tasks effectively as a team.

Span

The dimension of a wing perpendicular to the direction of motion. (Compare with chord and thickness.)

Special Visual Flight Rules

SVRF. Set of aviation regulations under which a pilot may operate an aircraft. In Class A airspace, flight under visual flight rules (VFR) is not permitted and instrument flight rules (IFR) flight is the norm. Pilots may as an alternative to IFR request an SVFR clearance to enter the airspace and fly visually. They need to be equipped with a transponder. In other controlled airspace, when the local weather is less than the minimums required for flight under visual flight rules (VFR) and again IFR would be the norm. Pilots may again as an alternative to IFR request an SVFR clearance to enter the airspace and fly visually.

Specific Impulse

The specific impulse of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit of propellant.

Speed

The rate of motion over a distance in time.

Speed of Sound

The rate of travel of a sound wave through an elastic medium. The speed of sound is equal to 769 mph and is referred to as Mach 1 by aerospace physics.

Spoiler

A long, narrow, hinged, moveable flap on the upper surface of an airplane wing that reduces lift and increases drag when raised.

Spoileron

Spoilers that can be used asymmetrically to achieve the effect of ailerons, i.e. to roll an aircraft by reducing the lift of one wing but unlike ailerons not increasing the lift of the other wing. As a side effect a raised spoileron also increases the drag on one wing which causes the aircraft to yaw which can be compensated with the rudder.

Squawk

1- A four-digit number entered into the transponder by a pilot to identify his aircraft to air traffic controllers.

2- A problem with an aircraft reported to maintenance for repairs.

Stabilator

A control surface which combines the function of the horizontal stabilizer and elevators in one by allowing the entire horizontal stabilizer to move and control the pitch of the aircraft.

Stage 1 Aircraft

Loudest aircraft grouping in regards to Aircraft Noise. A Stage 1 noise level means a take-off, flyover, or approach noise level greater than the Stage 2 noise limits.

Stage 2 Aircraft

Second loudest aircraft grouping in regards to Aircraft Noise. Stage 2 noise limits for airplanes regardless of the number of engines are as follows: 1- For Take-off: 108 EPNdB for maximum weights of 600,000 pounds or more, reduced by 5 EPNdB per halving of the 600,000 pounds maximum weight down to 93 EPNdB for maximum weights of 75,000 pounds and less. 2- For Sideline and Approach: 108 EPNdB for maximum weights of 600,000 pounds or more, reduced by 2 EPNdB per halving of the 600,000 pounds maximum weight down to 102 EPNdB for maximum weights of 75,000 pounds or less.

Stage 3 Aircraft

Third loudest (second quietest) aircraft grouping in regards to Aircraft Noise. Stage 3 noise limits are as follows: 1- For Take-off: airplanes with more than 3 engines 106 EPNdB for maximum weights of 850,000 pounds or more, reduced by 4 EPNdB per halving of the 850,000 pounds maximum weight down to 89 EPNdB for maximum weights of 44,673 pounds or less. 2-For Take-off: airplanes with 3 engines 104 EPNdB for maximum weights of 850,000 pounds or more, reduced by 4 EPNdB per halving of the 850,000 pounds maximum weight down to 89 EPNdB for maximum weights of 63,177 pounds or less. 3- For Take-off: airplanes with fewer than 3 engines 101 EPNdB for maximum weights of 850,000 pounds or more, reduced by 4 EPNdB per halving of the 850,000 pounds maximum weight down to 89 EPNdB for maximum weights of 106,250 pounds or less. 4- For Sideline: regardless of the number of engines 103 EPNdB for maximum weights of 882,000 pounds or more, reduced by 2.56 EPNdB per halving of the 882,000 pounds maximum weight down to 94 EPNdB for maximum weights of 77,200 pounds or less. 5- For Approach: regardless of the number of engines 105 EPNdB for maximum weights of 617,300 pounds or more, reduced by 2.33 EPNdB per halving of the 617,300 pounds maximum weight down to 98 EPNdB for maximum weights of 77,200 pounds or less.

Stage 4 Aircraft

Quietest aircraft grouping in regards to Aircraft Noise. Stage 4 noise limits are a cumulative 10 EPNdB (effective perceived noise level in decibels) less than the current Stage 3 limits.

Stage Length

The distance of the air charter itinerary's non-stop leg.

Stall

A condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow.

Stall Speed

The speed below which a clean aircraft of stated weight, with the engines throttled back, can no longer maintain a straight and level flight because the wing is stalling. Factors that affect the basic stalling speed are the weight, load factor, power, and slipstream and changes in the configuration (undercarriage up/down, flaps out/in, external stores, etc.). The stalling angle of an aircraft is fixed but the stalling speed is dependent on these factors.

Standard Rate Turn

A standard rate turn is a turn in which an airplane completes a 360 degree turn in 2 minutes. This is done by having a turn of 3 degrees per second.

Statute Mile

Same as a mile. A unit of length equal to 5,280 feet or 1,760 yards (1,609 meters), used in the United States and other English-speaking countries. Also referred to as a land mile.

STOL

Short Take-Off and Landing

STOLport

A STOLport or STOLPORT is an airport designed with STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) operations in mind, normally having a short single runway.

Suck Squeeze Bang Blow

Simplified way to remember the cycles of a four-stroke engine: intake, compression, power, exhaust.

Super Light Jet

A jet that falls between the classifications of a light jet and a midsize jet. A super light jet is typically larger and has longer range than a light jet but still not considered a midsize jet. See examples of Super Light Jets on JetRequest.com.

Super Midsize Jet

A midsize aircraft with a takeoff weight close to 255,000 lbs. They typically have seating capacity for 8 to 10 passengers. See examples of Super Midsize Jets on JetRequest.com.

SVFR

Special Visual Flight Rules. Set of aviation regulations under which a pilot may operate an aircraft. In Class A airspace, flight under visual flight rules (VFR) is not permitted and instrument flight rules (IFR) flight is the norm. Pilots may as an alternative to IFR request an SVFR clearance to enter the airspace and fly visually. They need to be equipped with a transponder. In other controlled airspace, when the local weather is less than the minimums required for flight under visual flight rules (VFR) and again IFR would be the norm. Pilots may again as an alternative to IFR request an SVFR clearance to enter the airspace and fly visually.

T Tango
TACAN

Tactical Air Navigation. It is a system that provides the user with bearing and distance (slant-range) to a ground or ship-borne station.

TAF

Terminal Aerodrome Forecast or, in some countries, Terminal Area Forecast. In meteorology and aviation, TAF is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. Generally a TAF is a 9- or 12-hour forecast, though some TAFs can cover an 18- or 24-hour period.

Tail Number

The aircraft registration. It is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies a civil aircraft, in similar fashion to a license plate on an automobile. In accordance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation, all aircraft must be registered with a national authority (such as the FAA). Also referred to as N-Numbers in the United States.

Tailwind

A wind which is blowing in the same direction as the direction of movement or flight.

Takeoff Weight

The weight of an aircraft as it takes off part way along a runway. Few flight planning systems calculate the actual take-off weight; instead, the fuel used for taking off is counted as part of the fuel used for climbing up to the normal cruise height.

Tarmac

A British name for a hard-surfaced area on an airport. The term is derived from "tar macadam", a mixture of tar and crushed stone often used as the surfacing material.

Taxi

To move slowly on the ground or on the surface of the water before takeoff or after landing.

Taxi Time

Is the time the charter aircraft is in transit to the runway up to the point of take off.

Taxiway

A path on an airport connecting runways with ramps, hangars, terminals and other facilities. They mostly have hard surface such as asphalt or concrete, although smaller airports sometimes use gravel or grass.

TFCs

Total Flight Cycles

TFHs

Total Flight Hours

TFR

Temporary Flight Restrictions

Thickness

The vertical dimension of a wing. (Compare with span and chord.)

Third Party Verification

Refers to the verification of safety, maintenance and operations by an independent auditor. There are three main companies that fill this role for air charter; they are WYVERN, ARG/US, and Q-Star.

Threshold

The beginning of the part of the runway usable for landing.

Thrust

Thrust is the force upon a system (such as a rocket or jet engine) generated when that system expels or accelerates mass. It is the driving force of a propeller in the line of its shaft, or the forward force produced in reaction to the gasses expelled rearward from a jet engine. The resultant thrust force is equal to and in the opposite direction of the expelled mass. One of the forces of flight- opposite of Drag.

Thrust Reversal

The method and means of reducing the landing run of an aircraft without excessive use of wheel brakes or any use of braking or tail parachutes. It is a temporary diversion of an aircraft engine's exhaust or changing of propeller pitch so that the thrust produced is directed forward, rather than aft. This acts against the forward travel of the aircraft, providing deceleration. Also called reverse thrust.

Thrust Reverser

A device placed in the tailpipe of a turbojet engine to deflect some of the exhaust gases forward to produce a rearward thrust. This helps decrease the landing roll. Thrust reversers are used by many jet aircraft to help slow down just after touch-down, reducing wear on the brakes and enabling shorter landing distances.

Touchdown Zone (TDZ)

The first 3000 feet of the runway or the first third of the runway, whichever is less, measured from the threshold.

Track

The path on the ground over which an aircraft has flown. Also used synonymously with course, the direction in which an aircraft is moving relative to the ground. Note that this is not necessarily the same as the aircraft's heading.

TRACON

Terminal Radar Approach Control (or FAA TRACON in the United States) is an Air Traffic Control facility usually located within the vicinity of a large airport. Typically, the TRACON controls aircraft within a 30-50 nautical mile (56 to 93 km) radius of the airport between the surface and 18,000 feet. A TRACON is sometimes called Approach Control or Departure Control in radio transmissions.

Traffic Information

Information given by ATC on the position and, if known, intentions of other aircraft likely to pose a hazard to flight.

Trans Atlantic Flight

The flight of an aircraft, whether fixed-wing aircraft, balloon or other device, which involves crossing the Atlantic Ocean — with a starting point in North America or South America and ending in Europe or Africa, or vice versa. Find private jets available for Trans Atlantic charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Trans Pacific Flight

The flight of an aircraft, whether fixed-wing aircraft, balloon or other device, which involves crossing the Pacific Ocean — with a starting point in North America or South America and ending in the Asia-Pacific region including Australia, or vice versa. Find private jets available for Trans Pacific charter flights on the Empty Legs and Transient Aircraft pages of JetRequest.com.

Transient Aircraft

An aircraft that is temporarily on the ground at an airport other than its home base and is not being used. The aircraft is usually transient because it makes more financial sense to leave it at that airport until the return flight. Transient aircraft are typically away from home base for 2 to 5 days and can be available for charter at discounted prices. Find private jets available for charter flights on the Transient Aircraft page of JetRequest.com.

Transmissometer

A device used to determine visibility by measuring the transmission of light through the atmosphere.

Transonic Flight

Flight in which an airplane transitions from subsonic speed to a speed at or beyond the speed of sound - considered to be 600-900 miles per hour, or Mach 0.8-1.2.

Trim

To adjust the aerodynamic forces on the control surfaces so that the aircraft maintains the set attitude without any control input. Also, the condition in which an aircraft is in static balance in pitch.

Trim Tab

A small tab attached to a flight control surface, that when properly adjusted, relieves pressure on the flight controls.

Triplane

An aeroplane with three similar-sized wings (or pairs of wings), exactly or approximately in vertical alignment.

True Air Speed

The speed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air. Takes wind out of the picture.

True Altitude

The elevation above sea level.

Turbine

Any of various machines in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid, such as water, steam, or gas, is converted to rotary motion. Turbines are used in boat propulsion systems, hydroelectric power generators, and jet aircraft engines.

Turbine Aircraft

An aircraft in which a turbine is used to power the engine.

Turbojet

A jet engine having a turbine-driven compressor and developing thrust from the exhaust of hot gases. Also, an aircraft in which a turbojet is used.

Turboprop Aircraft

Use of a jet rather than piston engine connected to a propeller. Turboprop engines are increasingly used when more horsepower is needed for speed or payload. Fins specs of Turboprop Aircraft on JetRequest.com.

Turboprop Airliner

A turboprop airliner is a turboprop engine powered, wide body heavy airplane that is traditionally used for commercial travel. Find specs of Turboprop Airliners on JetRequest.com.

Turbulence

An irregular motion of the atmosphere that interrupts the flow of wind.

Twin Engine Piston Airplane

Twin Engine Piston airplanes have two identical piston-powered engines connected to the propellers, which provide thrust to move the aircraft on the ground and through the air. Find specs of Multi Engine Piston Aircraft on JetRequest.com.

Type Certification

A Type Certificate is awarded by aviation regulating bodies to aerospace manufacturers after it has been established that the particular design of a civil aircraft, engine, or propeller has fulfilled the regulating bodies' current prevailing airworthiness requirements for the safe conduct of flights under all normally conceivable conditions (military types are usually exempted). Aircraft produced under a type certified design are issued a Standard Airworthiness Certificate.

U Uniform
Uncontrolled Airspace

Aviation term to describe airspace where an Air Traffic Control (ATC) service is not deemed necessary or cannot be provided for practical reasons. According to the airspace classes set by ICAO both Class F and Class G airspace are uncontrolled. It is the opposite of controlled airspace.

Undershoot

To bring an aircraft down well short of a runway threshold or planned spot while trying to land. Opposite of overshoot.

Unicom

A multi-purpose radio frequency used at most non-tower airports as the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency. UNICOM is also used for placing fuel orders, parking instructions, etc.

Universal Time (UT)

Modern and correct name for Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Also called Zulu time.

Unoccupied Flight Time

Flight time used in repositioning the aircraft back to its base or the point of passenger enplanement.

Useful Load

The weight of the crew, passengers, fuel, baggage and ballast, generally excluding emergency or portable equipment and ordnance.

UT1

The local time at the 0 meridian passing through Greenwich, England; it is the same everywhere.

UTC- Coordinated Universal Time

Greenwich Mean Time updated with leap seconds.

V Victor
V Speeds

Velocity Speeds. Standard terms used to define airspeeds important or useful to the operation of aircraft, such as fixed-wing aircraft, gliders, autogiros, helicopters, and dirigibles. These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing and verified in most countries by government flight inspectors during aircraft type-certification testing. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance or both.

V1 Takeoff Decision Speed

The critical engine failure recognition speed or takeoff decision speed. It is the decision speed nominated by the pilot which satisfies all safety rules, and above which the takeoff will continue even if an engine fails. The speed will vary between aircraft types and also due to aircraft weight, runway length, wing flap setting, engine thrust used, runway surface contamination and other factors.

Variable Operating Cost

Expenses that are incurred while the aircraft is flying. These costs can include fuel, fuel burn, fuel additives, lubricants, maintenance labor, maintenance parts, engine restoration cost, major periodic maintenance, propeller overhaul, APU maintenance overhaul, landing and parking fees, crew expenses, small supplies and catering. Same as Direct Operating Cost.

VAT

Value Added Tax. Similar to sales tax except it is charged to the manufacturer and provider of the goods and services as opposed to be charged to the end buyer.

Vector

Compass heading issued to an aircraft by ATC to provide navigational guidance by radar. Made famous in the movie Airplane with the line, "What's your vector Victor?"

Velocity

A vector quantity whose magnitude is a body's speed and whose direction is the body's direction of motion.

Vertical Separation

The vertical separation of aircraft.

Very Light Jet

VLJ. The smallest class of jet powered aircraft with a certified takeoff weight of less than 10,000 lbs. Some very light jets are approved for single pilot operation. They typically have seating capacity for 3 to 4 passengers. See examples of Very Light Jets on JetRequest.com.

VFR

Visual Flight Rules. A regulatory term describing flights that are conducted only in conditions where the pilot can see the ground, or in some instances is flying in the free space above a cloud. Compare to Instrument Flight Rules. Also used by pilots and controllers to indicate a type of flight plan.

Visual Flight Rules

VFR. A regulatory term describing flights that are conducted only in conditions where the pilot can see the ground, or in some instances is flying in the free space above a cloud. Compare to Instrument Flight Rules. Also used by pilots and controllers to indicate a type of flight plan.

Visual Meteorological Conditions

Conditions such as visibility, distance between clouds and a ceiling that is equal to or better than the specified minimums.

VLJ

Very Light Jet. The smallest class of jet powered aircraft with a certified takeoff weight of less than 10,000 lbs. Some very light jets are approved for single pilot operation. They typically have seating capacity for 3 to 4 passengers. Find specs of VLJs on the Very Light Jets page of JetRequest.com.

VOR

A type of radio navigational aid based on the ground, to help the pilot establish the bearings of the aircraft. Stands for VHF (Very High Frequency) omnidirectional radio range.

W Whiskey
Wait Time

The time an aircraft is waiting on the tarmac for the departure of the next leg of its air charter itinerary.

Waypoint

Waypoints are sets of coordinates that identify a point in physical space. Waypoints have only become widespread for navigational use by the layman since the development of advanced navigational systems, such as the Garmin G-1000, Rockwell Collins Pro Line and Honeywell Epic systems.

Weight and Balance

When the weight of the aircraft is at or below the allowable limit(s) for its configuration (parked, ground movement, take-off, landing, etc.) and its center of gravity is within the allowable range, and both will remain so for the duration of the flight, the aircraft is said to be within weight and balance. Different maximum weights may be defined for different situations; for example, large aircraft may have maximum landing weights that are lower than maximum take-off weights (because some weight is expected to be lost as fuel is burned during the flight).

Wet Lease

Is basically ACMI. The period can go from one month to usually one or two years. Everything less than one month can be considered as ad-hoc charter.

Wilco

Will Comply.

Wing

A lifting surface of an airplane/aeroplane or sailplane.

Wing Flaps

Wing flaps are moveable parts on the trailing edge of a wing that angle down to give it greater camber, increasing both its lift and aerodynamic drag. As flaps are extended, the stalling speed of the aircraft is reduced, which means that the aircraft can fly safely at lower speeds (especially during take off and landing).

Wing Loading

Wing loading is the loaded weight of an aircraft divided by the area of its wings. Lower wing loading designs need less power to achieve flight, operate at lower speeds, and have greater maneuverability. High wing loadings require more power, fly faster, and have decreased maneuverability. The faster an aircraft flies, the more lift is produced by each unit area of wing, so a smaller wing can carry the same weight in level flight, operating at a higher wing loading.

Winglet

A short, almost vertical stabilizing fin projecting from the tip of an aircraft wing. They are known to improve heading characteristics and fuel efficiency.

Wyvern

Wyvern provides specialized aviation services to companies that manufacture, finance, operate, maintain, and market commercial and business aircraft, as well as providing products and services to end-user consumers worldwide. Wyvern is a worldwide leader in performing on-site safety audits for corporate flight departments, charter operators, and commercial airlines.

X X-Ray
X-Axis

The longitudinal, or roll axis of an aircraft.

Y Yankee
Yaw

Of the three axis in flight, this specifies the side-to-side movement of the aircraft. Rotation of the aircraft around its vertical axis.

Yaw Damper

A device used to reduce/damp the rolling and yawing oscillations due to Dutch roll tendencies.

Yoke

A type of aircraft control column by which the pilot controls ailerons by rotating a device on top of the column to the left or right.

YOM

Year of Manufacture

Z Zulu
Zero Fuel Weight

The sum of operating weight empty and payload, i.e. the laden weight of an aircraft, excluding any usable fuel.

Zone of Confusion (ZOC)

A circular area centered at a TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation) station in which bearing is extremely noisy. Also known as the Zone of Ambiguity.

Zulu

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and Universal Time (UT). The world is divided into 24 time zones, each with a letter. Greenwich, England is standard for international aviation reference - "Z". Zulu time is actually the time at The Royal Observatory, in Greenwich, England.


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